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IN SEARCH OF ISLANDS OF SANITY

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Appendix I

Old Aristotelian Orientations  (circa 350 B.C.)                                        

Subject-predicate methods

Symmetrical relations, inadequate for proper evaluation

‘Properties’ of ‘substance’, ‘attributes’, matter’, etc.

Two-valued, ‘either-or’, inflexible,  dogmatic orientations

By definition ‘absolute sameness  in ‘all’ respects, (‘identity’)

By definition ‘absolute time’

Additive (‘and’), linear

Eventual ‘organism-as-a-whole’,  disregarding environmental factors

Two-valued causality, and so ‘final causation’ hypothesis

Avoiding empirical paradoxes

New General Semantic  Non-Aristotelian Orientations (1941 A.C.)  

Relational methods

Asymmetrical relations,indispensable for proper evaluation

Relative invariance of ‘qualities’ of function, dynamic structure, etc.

Infinite-valued flexibility, degree orientations

Empirical non-identity, a natural law as universal as gravitation

Empirical space-time

Functional, non- linear new factors

Organism-as-a-whole-in-environments,  introducing new unavoidable factors

Infinite-valued causality, where the consequent ‘final causation’ is not needed

Facing empirical paradoxes

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