Principle 2: TRUSTED AND NEUTRAL MEDIATOR TO ORCHESTRATE DIRECT AND INDIRECT COMMUNICATION.
In a pluralistic world, conflict is inevitable. A leader’s talent is required in mediating disputes as much as in deciding who is right and who is wrong. This calls for sensitivity, a sense of timing, integrity, patience, and acceptability as controller of the work environment.
“Review of the Summit’s opening days convinced the US that Begin and Sadat were disagreeing so sharply on basic issues that it would be wise to quit holding joint sessions. Instead Carter began conducting what is known in diplomacy as ‘proximity talks’. Sadat and Begin were in lodges less than one hundred yards apart and Carter was able to move easily from• a bilateral conversation with one to a chat with the other. Meanwhile, trilateral meetings continued between ministerial level officials.”
Principle 3. NORMAL HIERARCHICAL PROTOCOLS BETWEEN HIERARCHICAL LEVELS AND BETWEEN FUNCTIONS ARE SUSPENDED.
Usually policy makers make policy and workers do the work. Often each devalues the other’s perspective, consensus is not achieved, and execution misses the intent of policy. When policy makers and workers collaborate at both levels of work and policy, the effect is a lessening of adversarial dynamics implicit in a ‘propose-disclose’ system, and forward movements• based on a shared reality. At the least there is greater understanding and at the best there is learning and successful action.
“Ignoring protocol, Carter deals not with leaders, but with their aides to work out technical details. He worked with US as well as Israeli aides — keeping them in session for 1O+ hours, sending out for tea and sandwiches.”
Principle 4. MEDIATOR CONTROLS TIME LIMITS TO INTRODUCE A SENSE OF URGENCY
Control of time and space is essential to effective mediation. This makes sense, since the parties’ normal practices with regard to the use of time and space led them to their current difficulties. The logic applies to the resolution of any long standing organizational conflict — whether or not the lines are as clearly drawn as they were at Camp David.
“When the talks bogged down, Carter finally wondered whether Sadat and Begin might be holding a few concessions in reserve, to play if necessary in the final crucial stage of the talks. The President thus came to a vital decision. He would propose that the Summit end Sunday whether or not agreement had been reached.”
Principle 5. PHYSICAL ISOLATION.
Physical Isolation allows more flexibility and less posturing, and people concentrate on issues at hand. It was harder to sustain one’s avoidance of the obvious and new allegiances could be formed within the isolated group.
“Never in the history of modern or international negotiations have leaders been so isolated for so long in so single-minded an attempt to resolve the antagonisms that divided them.”