The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) sets guidelines for diagnosing mental disorders. This “bible” of abnormal psychology provides a common reference for all professionals in the field utilize standard definitions and vocabulary. While others may exist, professionals note that there is not enough definitive research on these outliers in order to include them in the DSM at this time. The DSM-5 clusters these disorders into three categories, but does indicate that these categories have “serious limitations and have not been consistently validated”. Cavaiola and Lavender (2000) are quick to comment that there is no one “pure” type, but these individuals can have various intensities of their disorder and can manifest traits of several of them, thus making it quite difficult to diagnose, even for clinical professionals.
A Cluster – This cluster includes the Paranoid Personality Disorder who is characterized by being overly suspicious and distrusting of others. The Schizoid personality Disorder is aloof and avoids social interactions. The Schizotypal Personality Disorder displays bizarre behaviors and comes across as odd and weird. Some professionals describe that this cluster is related to the more severe psychotic disorder of schizophrenia, but in a milder form.
B Cluster – The B Cluster includes the Narcissistic personality disorder which is characterized by a sense of excessive self-esteem and entitlement. Their constant need to be admired often draws them to positions of leadership and power. The Histrionic Personality Disorder includes behaviors of being overly emotional, shallow in relationships and in excessive need of attention. Individuals with Antisocial Personality Disorder lack a sense of morality and empathy for the well-being of others and the Borderline Personality tend to be excessively moody and angry, sometimes to the point of suicide, tend to have disruptive and emotionally intense relationships and lack a sense of identity.
C Cluster – The C Cluster includes people who tend to be excessively anxious. The Dependent Personality Disorder also referred to as co-dependent, are overly reliant on others for a sense of security and self–esteem. The Obsessive Compulsive Personality Disorder is overly moralistic, a perfectionist and highly critical of others.
NOTE: The following descriptions of personality disorders are taken primarily from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). Where other sources are included, these are specifically referenced. Descriptions on how these personality disorders may manifest in the workplace are either my own interpretations or those of other sources, in which case these are referenced.Download Article 1K Club